F. esculentum is often studied and used as a pollen and nectar source to increase natural predator numbers to control crop pests. Berndt et al 2002 found that the results were not entirely promising in one vineyard in New Zealand but the same team - Berndt et al 2006, four years later and studying a number of vineyards up and down NZ - did find a significant increase in 22 parasitoids, especially Dolichogenidea tasmanica, as did Irvin et al 1999 for D. t. in Canterbury orchards. Gurr et al 1998 showed that floral nectaries - and not shelter in or alternate hosts on F. esculentum - were responsible for this increase, and Stephens et al 1998 for Anacharis spp. on Micromus tasmaniae. Stephens et al 1998 also first demonstrated a great increase of A. spp. on M. t. (which also commonly predates on F. e. ). Cullen et al 2013 found that vineyards around Waipara had not continued planting buckwheat, suggesting a need for further technique development so that buckwheat will integrate well with real-world vineyard practice. English-Loeb et al 2003 found that it does sustain greater numbers of Anagrus parasitoids on Erythroneura leafhoppers, and Balzan and Wäckers 2013 found the same for Necremnus artynes and Ferracini et al 2012 for Necremnus tutae on Tuta absoluta, and thereby act as pest controls in tomato, potato, and to a lesser degree other Solanaceous and non-Solanaceous horticulturals. Kalinova and Moudry 2003 found that further companion planting with other flowers at the wrong time of year may actually cause F. esculentum to be killed by frosts it would have otherwise survived, and Colley and Luna 2000 found that it may delay its flowering to not coincide with the natural enemy it was planted to feed. Foti et al 2016 found significant short-chain carboxylic acid variation to be the most likely explanation for biocontrol performance variation between cultivars.
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